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مهندسی بهره برداری نفت دانشگاه آزاد بوشهر - مطالب Learn in English

 
مهندسی بهره برداری نفت دانشگاه آزاد بوشهر
***ما در برابر نسل آینده مسئولیت حفظ ذخائر نفت را داریم. *** امام خمینی(ره)
                                                        
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دانش آموخته مهندسی نفت گرایش بهره برداری از دانشگاه آزاد بوشهر و دانشجوی ارشد مهندسی اکتشاف دانشگاه یزد هستم، این وبلاگ -Petroleum Engineering At Islamic Azad University Of Bushehr -حاوی مطالب و جزوات کمک درسی و کتابهای مرتبط با مهندسی نفت در تمامی گرایش هاست. امیدوارم که این مطالب برای شما دوستان عزیز نفتی مورد استفاده واقع شه!
اگه کسی از دوستان جزوه و یا کتابی در رابطه با مهندسی نفت داشت لطف کنه به ایمیلم ارسال کنه تا در وبلاگ قرار بدم که بقیه دوستان هم بتونن از اون استفاده کنن.
Email: Utab.petroleum_engineering@yahoo
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The goal of oil and gas exploration is to find hydrocarbon accumulations in commercial quantities.  Petroleum geoscientists seek information from multiple sources in order to evaluate the numerous Elements and Processes which must be present for a successful petroleum system to exist within a sedimentary basin:

Elements

           Source Rock

           Migration route

           Reservoir

           Trap

           Seal

Processes

           Generation

           Migration

           Accumulation

           Preservation (permeability leakage over time)

SFD® surveys can be used to identify potential fluid-bearing anomalies, since the SFD® data generates unique information that is interpreted to assess attributes of reservoir quality, trap configuration and the presence of an effective seal.

http://s7.picofile.com/file/8236180526/Untitled6.jpg

The graphic shown here (source: Wikipedia - Petroleum Geology) is an example of a structural trap, where a fault has juxtaposed a porous and permeable reservoir which holds hydrocarbon reserves against an impermeable seal layer. Oil (shown in red) accumulates against the seal (or low permeability cap rock), to the depth of the base of the seal. Any further oil migrating in from the source will escape to the surface and seep.

In general, all these elements must be assessed via a limited 'window' into the subsurface world, which is sometimes provided by one (or possibly more) exploration wells. These wells present only a one-dimensional segment through the Earth and inferring three-dimensional characteristics from them is one of the most fundamental skills in petroleum geology. Explorationists employ multiple geophysical methods, as each can provide unique information regarding the earth’s subsurface and the potential hydrocarbon prospects contained therein. These methods can be employed at various stages of the exploration cycle, and each can have widely different costs and timeframe to employ, depending on the location and difficulty of access of the prospect area. Each method provides unique information regarding density, resistivity, and other earth properties.

The use of multiple, complementary methods such as SFD® can provide additional confidence in the building of subsurface geological models, which aids in reducing exploration risks

Other geophysical methods employed in hydrocarbon exploration include:

2D and 3D seismic data – reflection seismology is similar to sonar or echolocation, and requires a controlled source to emit a signal into the earth and an array of receivers to capture the signal as it is reflected back from strata in the subsurface. Processing and modeling of the data collected results in seismic images of the subsurface and the estimation of various rock properties.

Aeromagnetic and aerogravity methods - in exploration, magnetic and gravity data are typically acquired from an aircraft and thus termed “aeromagnetics” or “aerogravity” methods.  Typically, the value of these methods lies in early stage exploration to map basin architecture.  In most basins the underlying crystalline basement rocks have higher densities than the overlying sedimentary cover.  By data processing, forward modeling and inversion of the gravity data, the “depth to basement” can be determined. An understanding of the basin architecture helps in developing hydrocarbon source/maturity models and in determining where to focus additional exploration effort.

Magnetometers - these are used to measure the magnetic susceptibility of materials which aids in mapping basin architecture.   Additionally, magnetic data can be used to map fluid conduits due to associated mineralization effects.

Gravimeters - this method uses accelerometers (essentially a test mass on a spring) to measure variations in subsurface density, based on the acceleration caused by gravity between two or more measurement points.  In most basins the underlying crystalline basement rocks have higher densities than the overlying sedimentary cover.  

Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry (“FTG”) – while conventional gravimetry systems measure one component of the gravity field in the vertical direction, FTG is a technique which uses multiple pairs of accelerometers to measure the derivative of the gravity field in all three principle axes. Measuring derivatives gives higher resolution gravity data but the process is inherently more sensitive to noise. By data processing, forward modeling and inversion, prospect-level gravity anomalies can be located.

Controlled Source Electromagnetic data (“CSEM”) – CSEM marine surveying is a geophysical method that is able to map resistive bodies in the subsurface of the earth by transmitting a low-frequency electromagnetic signal.  The EM energy is quickly attenuated in conductive sediments, while in resistive layers which might contain hydrocarbons this effect is less pronounced. Data processing, forward modeling and inversion of the data collected results in a special representation of the subsurface resistivity.

Magnetotellurics (“MT”) - an electromagnetic geophysical method of imaging the earth's subsurface by measuring natural variations of electrical and magnetic fields at the earth's surface.  For hydrocarbon exploration, MT is mainly used as a complement to the primary technique of reflection seismology exploration - seismic imaging is able to image subsurface structure, but it cannot detect the changes in resistivity associated with hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-bearing formations. MT detects resistivity variations in subsurface structures, which can differentiate between structures bearing hydrocarbons and those that do not.  At a basic level of interpretation, resistivity is correlated with different rock type.

 

source: www.nxtenergy.com

 





نوع مطلب : Learn in English، 
برچسب ها : Exploration Methods، Geophysical Exploration، Geophysical، Exploration، اکتشاف، نفت و گاز، Gas Exploration،
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شنبه 25 بهمن 1393 :: نویسنده : زهرا صادقی زاده

Integrated lifting solutions for enhanced well production

Of the approximately one million oil and gas wells producing in the world, roughly 5% flow naturally—leaving nearly all of the world’s oil and gas production reliant on efficient artificial lift operations.

Schlumberger offers an integrated, field-proven lift platform that includes REDA electric submersible pumping systems and Camco gas lift and subsurface safety systems. Our exclusive optimization services integrate real-time monitoring with expert input. Together, our products and services deliver comprehensive artificial lift solutions that optimize production in any environment.

Electric Submersible Pumps

Boost production with REDA electric submersible pump systems. From cool-water wells and gas well dewatering systems to high-pressure conditions and high-temperature pumping systems, REDA pump systems support an extensive range of artificial lift applications.

Gas Lift

Enhance performance with gas lift systems, including Barrier series systems, using field-proven Camco and XLift products and PerfLift services in both conventional and challenging environments.

 

Artificial Lift Applications

Equip wells with products and services specially engineered for demanding environments, including challenging high-pressure subsea installations and high-temperature downhole operations.

 

Horizontal Surface Pumps

Achieve more power and flexibility with the REDA HPS G3 horizontal multistage pumping system—up to 2,500 hp in a single unit. The centrifugal surface pump’s flexible motor and pump mounting allow the unit to be easily modified in the field.

Surface Electrical Equipment and Services

Ensure reliable and efficient energy supply and control with our line of power drives (VSDs) and surface equipment controllers—specifically tailored for use with ESPs and surface pumping systems.

 

Real-Time Monitoring and Optimization

Enhance lift system performance and eliminate potential problems through reservoir monitoring, round-the-clock surveillance and diagnostics, and advanced lifting services.

 

Progressing Cavity Pumps

Enhance lift performance with industry-leading KUDU progressing cavity pump (PCP) systems engineered to handle the demands of heavy, medium or light oil; coalbed methane; and dewatering applications.

Sucker Rod Pumping in North America

Benefit from the combined expertise of the leading sucker rod companies in North America, supported by Schlumberger technologies, infrastructure, and research and engineering capabilities.


source: Schlumberger





نوع مطلب : Learn in English، 
برچسب ها : Schlumberger، Artificial Lift، enhanced well production، enhanced، Gas Lift، Sucker Rod Pumping، Surface Pumps،
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The top-earning degree: engineering, with compensation for 2013 grads of $62,600. But that number is for a very broad category. There are many different types of engineering degrees, from petroleum engineering to aerospace engineering to mechanical engineering. Now the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), the non-profit group that puts together the salary information, has released a table showing the starting salary breakdown for the 10 top-earning specialized degrees. It turns out that grads who majored in petroleum engineering earn, on average, $4,400 a year more than general engineering majors. Next after petroleum engineering: computer engineering, at $70,900 and in third place, chemical engineering, at $67,500.

Here is NACE’s table:

Degrees

If you want to pursue petroleum engineering as an undergraduate, you need to find a school that offers that specific degree. According to the Society of Petroleum Engineers, you can choose from 27 schools in the U.S., including Brigham Young University, California Polytechnic State University, Colorado School of Mines and Stanford. Petroleum engineers learn to locate oil sources using all kinds of methods, from seismic data to gravity and magnetic information. They also train in other methods of oil extraction like fracking, water injection and CO2 flooding and they need to be able to analyze the economics of each method. All of that means petroleum engineers must satisfy requirements in chemistry, math, physics, geology economics and thermodynamics.

All of the majors on the specialized chart are requirement-heavy. For instance, both computer engineering, in second place and computer science, No. 4, require intense study in both math and engineering. What’s the difference between the two degrees? According to the School of Engineering at the State University of Buffalo’s website, computer science majors focus on the mathematical end of the discipline, studying algorithms, computation theories, computer “architecture,” artificial intelligence and how programming language fits into software systems. While computer engineers also study algorithms and computation theories, their main concern is the design of computer devices and systems. In other words, they look at how to implement computing ideas into working physical systems, which can include local networks and/or the Internet. In sum, says the site, “the scientist seeks this understanding as an end in itself, the engineer in order to build things.” According to NACE’s data, computer engineers start off making $6,400 more than computer scientists.

Along with computer science, there are just two other majors in the top 10 that are not engineering degrees: Management Information Systems/Business ($60,700) and Logistics/Materials Management ($59,800).

I last reported on the starting salaries for specialized degrees in September when NACE came out with a salary study that relied on data gathered in July. The latest data come from NACE’s final tally for the year, using information gathered in November. The salaries are a bit higher in this latest report, with petroleum engineering paying $800 more than the number released in September.

21-1-2014

 





نوع مطلب : Learn in English، 
برچسب ها : The 10 Specialized College Degrees، College Degrees، Degrees، petroleum engineering، top-earning degree، salaries،
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Directional drilling has been an integral part of the oil and gas industry since the 1920s. While the technology has improved over the years, the concept of directional drilling remains the same: drilling wells at multiple angles, not just vertically, to better reach and produce oil and gas reserves. Additionally, directional drilling allows for multiple wells from the same vertical well bore, minimizing the wells' environmental impact.

http://s4.picofile.com/file/8162763318/directional_drilling_1.jpg

Improvements in drilling sensors and global positioning technology have helped to make vast improvements in directional drilling technology. Today, the angle of a drillbit is controlled with intense accuracy through real-time technologies, providing the industry with multiple solutions to drilling challenges, increasing efficiency and decreasing costs.

Tools utilized in achieving directional drills include whipstocks, bottomhole assembly (BHA) configurations, three-dimensional measuring devices, mud motors and specialized drillbits.

Now, from a single location, various wells can be drilled at myriad angles, tapping reserves miles away and more than a mile below the surface.

http://s4.picofile.com/file/8162763342/directional_drilling_2.jpg


Many times, a non-vertical well is drilled by simply pointing the drill in the direction it needs to drill. A more complex way of directional drilling utilizes a bend near the bit, as well as a downhole steerable mud motor. In this case, the bend directs the bit in a different direction from the wellbore axis when the entire drillstring is not rotating, which is achieved by pumping drilling fluid through the mud motor. Then, once the angle is reached, the complete drillstring is rotated, including the bend, ensuring the drillbit does not drill in a different direction from the wellbore axis.

One type of directional drilling, horizontal drilling, is used to drastically increase production. Here, a horizontal well is drilled across an oil and gas formation, increasing production by as much as 20 times more than that of its vertical counterpart. Horizontal drilling is any wellbore that exceeds 80 degrees, and it can even include more than a 90-degree angle (drilling upward).


Source: Mackenzie Gas Project






نوع مطلب : Learn in English، 
برچسب ها : ?How Does Directional Drilling Work، Directional Drilling، Directional، non-vertical well،
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پنجشنبه 26 دی 1392 :: نویسنده : زهرا صادقی زاده
What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?
Contrary to many media reports, hydraulic fracturing is not a “drilling process.”  Hydraulic fracturing is used after the drilled hole is completed. Put simply, hydraulic fracturing is the use of fluid and material to create or restore small fractures in a formation in order to stimulate production from new and existing oil and gas wells. This creates paths that increase the rate at which fluids can be produced from the reservoir formations, in some cases by many hundreds of percent.

The process includes steps to protect water supplies. To ensure that neither the fluid that will eventually be pumped through the well, nor the oil or gas that will eventually be collected, enters the water supply, steel surface or intermediate casings are inserted into the well to depths of between 1,000 and 4,000 feet. The space between these casing “strings” and the drilled hole (wellbore), called the annulus, is filled with cement. Once the cement has set, then the drilling continues from the bottom of the surface or intermediate cemented steel casing to the next depth. This process is repeated, using smaller steel casing each time, until the oil and gas-bearing reservoir is reached (generally 6,000 to 10,000 ft).  The diagram shown below is a generalization of a typical Eagle Ford Shale gas well in south central Texas. A more detailed look at casing and its role in groundwater protection is available HERE.
http://s4.picofile.com/file/8164103742/horizontalfrac.jpg


With these and other precautions taken, high volumes of fracturing fluids are pumped deep into the well at pressures sufficient to create or restore the small fractures in the reservoir rock needed to make production possible. 

http://s5.picofile.com/file/8164102784/fracking_graphic_120418.gif

What's in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid?

Water and sand make up 98 to 99.5 percent of the fluid used in hydraulic fracturing. In addition, chemical additives are used. The exact formulation varies depending on the well.  To view a chart of the chemicals most commonly used in hydraulic fracturing and for a more detailed discussion of this question, click HERE

http://s5.picofile.com/file/8136184626/green_4_.gif



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نوع مطلب : Learn in English، 
برچسب ها : What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?، Hydraulic Fracturing، Hydraulic، Fracturing، fractures،
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